It is well known that transportation is the backbone of many countries’ economies including the US. Thus, when that network is interrupted for any reason, there is a significant effect on that region’s/country’s/company’s economic infrastructure. Transportation systems continually face the threat of natural disasters and accidents—and terrorist attacks. These attacks can have debilitating results for critical infrastructure, public safety, economic disaster, etc. Since the mid-90s, there have been more than 250 terrorist attacks worldwide against transportation targets, resulting in nearly 1000 deaths and more than 6,000 injuries. That elevation in the level of terrorism in mass transit settings highlights the importance of enhancing transit security through training, improved coordination in both preventing, interdicting, responding to, and recovering from emergency incidents, and other security-related actions. In fact, the 9/11 Commission characterized the Federal emphasis on aviation security spending as “fight[ing] the last war,” noting that “opportunities to do harm are as great, or greater, in maritime or surface transportation.”
Airports are an important gateway to individual travel. Airport security did not begin on 9/11, but prior to that horrendous day. As a response to attacks during the past decades, the air transport system has implemented a range of security measures to mitigate the threats and will require for future adjustments to adapt the security systems as those needs arise.
CRA’s experts have conducted interdiction, response and recovery training and exercises on airport and airline incidents. Our experts have also presented on airport security at conferences such as, the Counter Terror Expo in DC in May 2012.
Rail and Passenger Rail Systems
Transportation rail systems are highly attractive targets for terrorist organizations as evidenced by repeated attacks in recent years. This is resulting from rail systems are open systems moving high volumes of passengers across great distances, not to mention trains make scheduled stops along fixed routes; their operations depend on people having quick and easy access to stations and trains and this results in large numbers of access points. These aspects make the systems extremely vulnerable and difficult to protect. Since a lot of this type of transportation is partially the backbone of several countries’ economies, the network of rail systems is the most efficient and effective solution. Attacks on such systems as a subway or a railway is an act of great relevance for media, travelers, business owners, and communities at large. However, CRA’s assistance in making a reliable and efficient security system has a very effective preventive and reassuring function, because an asset (e.g. a station) will become less attractive for a possible attack.
In December 2006, CRA trained Amtrak employees on Security Awareness in transit settings. We conducted an initial needs assessment of a random sample of managers and front line employees to determine the best approach for presenting the training to ensure participant retention of the information provided. We designed the training, conducted more than 850 training sessions for more than 12,000 Amtrak employees. CRA also worked with select Amtrak managers to assess the type of additional emergency response training needed by their employees, such as Incident Command, terrorism awareness and prevention, and additional security awareness training.
CRA also conducted a similar training series and Level 1 evaluation process for the Miami-Dade Transit Authority.
CRA also supported Amtrak with their “See Something, Say Something” campaign. This campaign has assisted in the general public’s awareness of suspicious activities, suspicious behaviors, and suspicious items, therefore reducing the chances that a threat(s) will go undetected.
CRA’s Maritime Security Team’s extensive experience provides a complete suite of leading maritime security program services including training and exercise development and facilitation; hazard mitigation and prevention planning; security management, vulnerability and risk assessments; infrastructure protection planning, and emergency response and recovery planning.
CRA’s expertise spans the entire range of potential emergencies, including natural hazards, hazardous materials incidents, and terrorism.
In support of the Maritime Security Initiative, CRA produced a series of 16 tabletop exercises for the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) under the Port Security Exercise and Training Program (PortSTEP). The objective of this project was to design, develop, implement, and evaluate a model Port Exercise and Training Plan used by maritime industry partners. This experience supplemented through our on-going work with the U.S. Coast Guard and similar projects with ports and harbors across the United States.
CRA’s maritime specialists also understand maritime industry operations and the threats they face and is dedicated to developing and supporting new programs, resources, and techniques to address the security challenges facing America’s waterways.
U.S. and International regulations require training to improve the preparedness of port facilities, commercials vessels, offshore oil facilities, and other maritime industry stake holders. Committed to improving maritime security, CRA utilizes its experience and a wide range of services including training, security assessments, vessel security inspections, drills and exercises.
Seaports worldwide are the lifeblood of international trade and commerce with some five million tons of cargo coming in through 361 ports every day, and less than two percent of it is inspected. CRA is positioned to meet the security needs of foreign ports and international maritime stakeholders worldwide. Due to our wealth of experience our services meet and typically exceed regulations set forth by:
- S. Maritime Transportation Security Act – International Ship and Port Facility Security Code – (MTSA – ISPS)
- International Maritime Organization – (IMO)
- United States Code of Federal Regulations – CFR 33 & 46 –
- 33 CFR 101 – Maritime Security – General
- 33 CFR 103 – Area Maritime Security
- 33 CFR 104 – Vessel Security
- 33 CFR 105 – Facility Security
- 33 CFR 106 – Outer Continental Shelf Facility Security
- 46 CFR Shipping
- USCG – Vessel Inspection Requirements
CRA can provide concrete solutions to transit agencies and private sector through our team of national experts in planning, training, and exercises.
TSA Cross Modal Training Needs Assessment. CRA was tasked by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to conduct an analysis of the training requirements for the transportation modes under the 9/11 Act. We conducted a comprehensive review of TSA courses, including the development of an assessment survey that will be sent to providers of all transportation modes (such as transit, highways, commercial air, and private air divisions), and holding focus groups with key TSA stakeholders and a random sample of professionals working in each transportation mode. CRA produced: (1) an Assessment Report, (2) a Training Program Plan, (3) a Training Content Plan (including course layout, sample storyboards for at least two training lessons, and the identification of course materials required by the plan), and (4) a 9/11 Training Plan.